Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play crucial roles in the formation of ozone, aerosol, and acid rain which are unfavorable to human health, climate, and ecosystem stabilities. NOx is emitted by both anthropogenic and natural sources, such as fossil fuel combustion, soil bacteria, lightning, etc. Accurate knowledge of NOx emissions is essential for relevant scientific research and air pollution control policies.
Characterization of the surface deformation related to the 2012
moment magnitude (Mw) 7.6 Nicoya earthquake was undertaken using
continuous and campaign Global Positioning System (GPS) observations. This
location is uniquely situated to monitor megathrust conditions as the peninsula
extends to within 60 km of the trench. The entirety of the postseismic and
relocking period were considered, totaling 5 years. Seismic observations were
also included, to cumulatively elucidate the timing and spatial extent of
The magnetosphere of Uranus is far from well known since there was only one fly-by measurement in history. In order to study the magnetosphere and its coupling mechanism with the solar wind, we used our multifluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model [Cao and Paty, 2017] to successfully simulate the variation of the global magnetosphere of Uranus and have predicted potential favorable reconnection locations.
The airborne dust has been well recognized to have a significant impact on the climate system at varying spatial scales (through direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects), on biochemistry (providing marine phytoplankton with iron nutrient), and on human health (causing severe disease) during the past decades. However, current estimations of these effects are still very uncertain because the dust cycle involves many complex physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere at different spatial and temporal scales, as well as the state of surfaces prone to the dust emission.
We present results from a three‐dimensional simulation model of the complex plasma environment near the Jovian moon Callisto. Beneath Callisto’s icy crust possibly lies a liquid saltwater ocean, properties of which can be constrained through magnetic induction signatures generated by Jupiter’s time‐varying magnetospheric field.
Iron and manganese transformation reactions greatly impact a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes in the environment, including the transport and degradation of inorganic and organic contaminants, the cycling of organic carbon, and the transformation a variety of other biogeochemically important chemical species. In addition, as essential nutrient, iron exerts a substantial control on ocean productivity and export of organic matter to the deep ocean.
The conditions required for Earth-like life to emerge on a planetary body are thought to include the presence of liquid water, the availability of energy and the existence of organic material. There are situations when determining whether the above conditions exist on a planetary body is not possible without a detailed understanding of the radiative processes occurring in a planet's atmosphere. In this work, studies of the radiative flux and transfer within planetary atmospheres are carried out in order to elucidate whether certain planetary bodies may be habitable.
Large mainshocks can alter stress field on subsurface asperities across broad spatial and temporal windows, which would promote or inhibit fault motion. Beyond rapid rupture during earthquakes, fault can also slip at a steady rate without seismic radiation. In between these two end members, slow slip events have been documented within the conditionally stable transition zone.
Wildfires release large amounts of greenhouse gases, carbonaceous aerosols, and other pollutants, therefore having complex impacts on the earth climate, local weather, and air quality. To study the transport of the wildfire emissions, a plume height dataset has been developed. The resulting dataset from 2002 to 2010 captured well the observed MISR plume height distribution. By adding the plume height dataset in the climate model, the plume-rise enhanced AOD downstream of the wildfire spots by 20 to 50%.