Mining and processing of uranium ore, followed by improper disposal and aging nuclear waste infrastructure, have left behind a legacy of uranium contamination across the United States. Uranium bioreduction, an in situ bioremediation strategy which promotes microbial reduction of aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) solids, has proven successful at decreasing groundwater uranium concentrations below regulatory limits. However, iron
Some of the largest earthquakes yet observed occur along the broad interface between two converging tectonic plates called the megathrust. The extent of the megathrust and its associated seismicity differs with each subduction zone, but typically crustal deformation related to the rupture extends both in submarine and terrestrial environments. On land, this coseismic deformation is common observed with stationary instruments such as Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) or through satellite imagery using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR).
The risk of an oil spill accident is increasing in pristine regions of the world’s oceans due
to the development and transport of crude oil resources. The ability to predict the trajectory of
spilled oil is critical for the improvement of emergency response strategies. Although the controls of
petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation have been studied in the ocean for years, there is as yet no
consensus on the results for predictive modeling. One of the reasons is the complexity of the
The objective of this dissertation research was to characterize sedimentary microbial populations that are active in degrading petroleum hydrocarbons that reach the seafloor during accidental oil spills. Whereas most previous work has investigated hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities in sediments from seep environments that are regularly exposed to high levels of oil, the focus of this study was on non-seep sediments that are not pre-exposed to high levels of petroleum.
Given the strong recent interest in the decadal timescale variability and the potential for its predictability, it is critical to identify dynamics that carry inherent decadal-scale predictability. This work enhances our understanding and prediction capability of the subsurface signature of the decadal variability in the eastern North Pacific upwelling systems using reanalysis products and a set of eddy-resolving ocean model simulations.
This dissertation employs DISCOVER-AQ aircraft experiments and 3-D chemical and transport model to study the contributions of different sources to the correlation of O3-CO and O3-CH2O on different scales, and the implements of O3 estimation using the correlations and concentrations of CO and CH2O.
This dissertation employs various satellite retrievals and the 3-D Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) to (1) identify and quantify the emission sources, and (2) derive pollutant trends.
First, we use short-lived reactive aromatics as proxies to diagnose transport of pollutants through the Himalayas to Tibet. We find enhancements of reactive aromatics over Tibet by a factor of 6 on average due to rapid transport from India and nearby regions during the presence of a high-altitude cut-off low system.
The modeling of thermal convection in porous media is a challenging task due to the inherent structural and thermophysical heterogeneities that permeate over several scales. In the present thesis, we address several issues relevant to buoyancy driven thermal convection in porous media. Our approach is based on establishing a multi-scale framework build on knowledge accrued by theoretical, numerical and experimental methods.
Synoptic-scale atmospheric disturbances occupy extratropics in wintertime and form extratropical “storm tracks”. These disturbances not only influence day-to-day weather variability but also modulate regional climates. The region of the North Pacific storm track is also known to be characterized by high concentrations of atmospheric aerosols, making it an ideal location for investigating the interaction between aerosols and extratropical disturbances.
The drastically changing climate system plays a critical role in modulating emission and distribution conditions of air pollutants including greenhouse gases, aerosols, and tracer gases, while these air pollutants exert significant feedback to the climate system through multiple biogeophysical, biogeochemical, and hydrological pathways. These interactions occur at different spatial and temporal scales that increase the difficulty for a clear and comprehensive understanding.