Synoptic-scale atmospheric disturbances occupy extratropics in wintertime and form extratropical “storm tracks”. These disturbances not only influence day-to-day weather variability but also modulate regional climates. The region of the North Pacific storm track is also known to be characterized by high concentrations of atmospheric aerosols, making it an ideal location for investigating the interaction between aerosols and extratropical disturbances.
The drastically changing climate system plays a critical role in modulating emission and distribution conditions of air pollutants including greenhouse gases, aerosols, and tracer gases, while these air pollutants exert significant feedback to the climate system through multiple biogeophysical, biogeochemical, and hydrological pathways. These interactions occur at different spatial and temporal scales that increase the difficulty for a clear and comprehensive understanding.
The tropics are a critical part of climate system, modulating global temperature and precipitation patterns on a variety of timescales. Yet, natural climate variability across much of the tropics remains poorly characterized due to the dearth of instrumental observations prior to 1970s. Massive corals are now routinely used to reconstruct past tropical climate variability, however the accuracy of these records have been questioned as corals growing on the same reef can produce very different geochemical signals.